生而自由

自由而无用的灵魂

FFMPEG系列之三:视频封装为MP4文件

上一篇讲到了将帧(AVFrame)编码为H264视频流,并直接写文件保存。这样保存的是裸的视频流,大部分播放器是无法正常播放的–要么直接打不开、要么播放时有“快进”的现象,只有KMPlayer、PotPlayer这些专业的播放器可以播放。

原因在于我们平常接触的视频文件如MP4、AVI、KMV等其实是视频的“容器”,容器里面封装了视频流、音频流、字幕流等各种流,而且可以同时包含多个同种流–比如包含多个字幕流,这样在播放时就可以切换字幕了。同时容器的头部一般还提供了相当多的信息–如其中包含的流信息、编码信息等–以使解码时能正确地解码。所以只有将视频流封装到容器中,才能说真正地得到了一个视频文件。

示例代码同样来自FFMPEG官方示例:https://ffmpeg.org/doxygen/2.8/muxing_8c-example.html,这里仅摘取了其中的部分重要代码。与上一篇文章中的代码对比,可以发现仅仅添加如下改动即可:

  1. 首先得获取AVFormatContext,通过avformat_alloc_output_context2(&oc, NULL, NULL, filename)即可获取。
  2. 同样的先通过avcodec_find_encoder找到编码器,然后以该编码器为参数再往AVFormatContext里面添加一个视频流:avformat_new_stream(oc, *codec)。
  3. 从视频流里面就可以拿到AVCodecContext了(上文中是avcodec_alloc_context3得到的),和上文一样,比特率、视频宽高之类的都在它上面设置就行了,不过注意time_base要在AVStream上设置,然后同样的以avcodec_open2来用编码器打开AVCodecContext就行了。
  4. 写文件时,先打开文件:avio_open(&oc->pb, filename, AVIO_FLAG_WRITE),再写入容器头信息:avformat_write_header(oc, NULL),然后写入编码后的AVPacket时用av_interleaved_write_frame(oc, &pkt)来写入,最后在结束时使用av_write_trailer(oc)来写入尾部,当然还要使用avio_closep(&oc->pb)来关闭输出文件。
/* Add an output stream. */
static void add_stream(OutputStream *ost, AVFormatContext *oc,
                       AVCodec **codec,
                       enum AVCodecID codec_id)
{
    AVCodecContext *c;
    int i;
    /* find the encoder */
    *codec = avcodec_find_encoder(codec_id);
    if (!(*codec)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not find encoder for '%s'\n",
                avcodec_get_name(codec_id));
        exit(1);
    }
    ost->st = avformat_new_stream(oc, *codec);
    if (!ost->st) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate stream\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    ost->st->id = oc->nb_streams-1;
    c = ost->st->codec;
    switch ((*codec)->type) {
    case AVMEDIA_TYPE_AUDIO:
        c->sample_fmt  = (*codec)->sample_fmts ?
            (*codec)->sample_fmts[0] : AV_SAMPLE_FMT_FLTP;
        c->bit_rate    = 64000;
        c->sample_rate = 44100;
        if ((*codec)->supported_samplerates) {
            c->sample_rate = (*codec)->supported_samplerates[0];
            for (i = 0; (*codec)->supported_samplerates[i]; i++) {
                if ((*codec)->supported_samplerates[i] == 44100)
                    c->sample_rate = 44100;
            }
        }
        c->channels        = av_get_channel_layout_nb_channels(c->channel_layout);
        c->channel_layout = AV_CH_LAYOUT_STEREO;
        if ((*codec)->channel_layouts) {
            c->channel_layout = (*codec)->channel_layouts[0];
            for (i = 0; (*codec)->channel_layouts[i]; i++) {
                if ((*codec)->channel_layouts[i] == AV_CH_LAYOUT_STEREO)
                    c->channel_layout = AV_CH_LAYOUT_STEREO;
            }
        }
        c->channels        = av_get_channel_layout_nb_channels(c->channel_layout);
        ost->st->time_base = (AVRational){ 1, c->sample_rate };
        break;
    case AVMEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO:
        c->codec_id = codec_id;
        c->bit_rate = 400000;
        /* Resolution must be a multiple of two. */
        c->width    = 352;
        c->height   = 288;
        /* timebase: This is the fundamental unit of time (in seconds) in terms
         * of which frame timestamps are represented. For fixed-fps content,
         * timebase should be 1/framerate and timestamp increments should be
         * identical to 1. */
        ost->st->time_base = (AVRational){ 1, STREAM_FRAME_RATE };
        c->time_base       = ost->st->time_base;
        c->gop_size      = 12; /* emit one intra frame every twelve frames at most */
        c->pix_fmt       = STREAM_PIX_FMT;
        if (c->codec_id == AV_CODEC_ID_MPEG2VIDEO) {
            /* just for testing, we also add B frames */
            c->max_b_frames = 2;
        }
        if (c->codec_id == AV_CODEC_ID_MPEG1VIDEO) {
            /* Needed to avoid using macroblocks in which some coeffs overflow.
             * This does not happen with normal video, it just happens here as
             * the motion of the chroma plane does not match the luma plane. */
            c->mb_decision = 2;
        }
    break;
    default:
        break;
    }
    /* Some formats want stream headers to be separate. */
    if (oc->oformat->flags & AVFMT_GLOBALHEADER)
        c->flags |= AV_CODEC_FLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
}

/**************************************************************/
/* media file output */
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    OutputStream video_st = { 0 }, audio_st = { 0 };
    const char *filename;
    AVOutputFormat *fmt;
    AVFormatContext *oc;
    AVCodec *audio_codec, *video_codec;
    int ret;
    int have_video = 0, have_audio = 0;
    int encode_video = 0, encode_audio = 0;
    AVDictionary *opt = NULL;
    /* Initialize libavcodec, and register all codecs and formats. */
    av_register_all();
    if (argc < 2) {
        printf("usage: %s output_file\n"
               "API example program to output a media file with libavformat.\n"
               "This program generates a synthetic audio and video stream, encodes and\n"
               "muxes them into a file named output_file.\n"
               "The output format is automatically guessed according to the file extension.\n"
               "Raw images can also be output by using '%%d' in the filename.\n"
               "\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;
    }
    filename = argv[1];
    if (argc > 3 && !strcmp(argv[2], "-flags")) {
        av_dict_set(&opt, argv[2]+1, argv[3], 0);
    }
    /* allocate the output media context */
    avformat_alloc_output_context2(&oc, NULL, NULL, filename);
    if (!oc) {
        printf("Could not deduce output format from file extension: using MPEG.\n");
        avformat_alloc_output_context2(&oc, NULL, "mpeg", filename);
    }
    if (!oc)
        return 1;
    fmt = oc->oformat;
    /* Add the audio and video streams using the default format codecs
     * and initialize the codecs. */
    if (fmt->video_codec != AV_CODEC_ID_NONE) {
        add_stream(&video_st, oc, &video_codec, fmt->video_codec);
        have_video = 1;
        encode_video = 1;
    }
    if (fmt->audio_codec != AV_CODEC_ID_NONE) {
        add_stream(&audio_st, oc, &audio_codec, fmt->audio_codec);
        have_audio = 1;
        encode_audio = 1;
    }
    /* Now that all the parameters are set, we can open the audio and
     * video codecs and allocate the necessary encode buffers. */
    if (have_video)
        open_video(oc, video_codec, &video_st, opt);
    if (have_audio)
        open_audio(oc, audio_codec, &audio_st, opt);
    av_dump_format(oc, 0, filename, 1);
    /* open the output file, if needed */
    if (!(fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE)) {
        ret = avio_open(&oc->pb, filename, AVIO_FLAG_WRITE);
        if (ret < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Could not open '%s': %s\n", filename,
                    av_err2str(ret));
            return 1;
        }
    }
    /* Write the stream header, if any. */
    ret = avformat_write_header(oc, &opt);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error occurred when opening output file: %s\n",
                av_err2str(ret));
        return 1;
    }
    while (encode_video || encode_audio) {
        /* select the stream to encode */
        if (encode_video &&
            (!encode_audio || av_compare_ts(video_st.next_pts, video_st.st->codec->time_base,
                                            audio_st.next_pts, audio_st.st->codec->time_base) <= 0)) {
            encode_video = !write_video_frame(oc, &video_st);
        } else {
            encode_audio = !write_audio_frame(oc, &audio_st);
        }
    }
    /* Write the trailer, if any. The trailer must be written before you
     * close the CodecContexts open when you wrote the header; otherwise
     * av_write_trailer() may try to use memory that was freed on
     * av_codec_close(). */
    av_write_trailer(oc);
    /* Close each codec. */
    if (have_video)
        close_stream(oc, &video_st);
    if (have_audio)
        close_stream(oc, &audio_st);
    if (!(fmt->flags & AVFMT_NOFILE))
        /* Close the output file. */
        avio_closep(&oc->pb);
    /* free the stream */
    avformat_free_context(oc);
    return 0;
}

 

点赞

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注